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Показания к использованию заменителей грудного молока
Almost all mothers can breastfeed successfully, which includes initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life, breastfeeding exclusively for the first 6 months and continuing breastfeeding (along with giving appropriate complementary foods) up to 2 years of age or beyond. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life is particularly beneficial for mothers and infants. Positive effects of breastfeeding on the health of infants and mothers are observed in all settings. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of acute infections such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, ear infection, Haemophilus influenza, meningitis and urinary tract infection. It also protects against chronic conditions in the future such as type I diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. Breastfeeding during infancy is associated with lower mean blood pressure and total serum cholesterol, and with lower prevalence of type-2 diabetes, overweight and obesity during adolescence and adult life. Breastfeeding delays the return of a woman’s fertility and reduces the risks of post-partum haemorrhage, pre-menopausal breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, a small number of health conditions of the infant or the mother may justify recommending that she does not breastfeed temporarily or permanently. These conditions, which concern very few mothers and their infants, are listed below together with some health conditions of the mother that, although serious, are not medical reasons for using breast-milk substitutes. Whenever stopping breastfeeding is considered, the benefits of breastfeeding should be weighed against the risks posed by the presence of the specific conditions listed.
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